Anglický minulý čas prostý – Past Simple

Past simple neboli do češtiny přeloženo minulý čas prostý je co do tvorby a způsobu použití jedním z nejjednodušších gramatických jevů v angličtině. Past simple vyjadřuje děj, který začal a skončil v určitém okamžiku v minulosti. Mluvčí sice nemusí čas přesně vyjádřit, ale z promluvy jasně vyplývá, jaký okamžik má mluvčí na mysli.
Tvorba past simple je velmi jednoduchá. K většině sloves pouze přiřadíme na konec dvě písmena –ed. Je samozřejmě potřeba dát si pozor na výslovnost jednotlivých sloves v minulém čase. Tvorba se liší u nepravidelných sloves, kdy je potřeba se všechny formy naučit nazpaměť. Ale, není to tak složité, nepravidelných sloves zas není tak brutální množství.

Příklady past simple

I saw him yesterday. – Včera jsem ho viděl.
He washed his car yesterday. – Včera umyl své auto.
Last year, I traveled to Egypt. – Minulý rok jsem jel/cestoval do Egypta.
I bought a book – Koupil jsem knihu.
I saw a movie yesterday. – Včera jsem viděl film.
Pokud tvoříme otázky s použitím minulého času past simple, používáme pomocné sloveso did a významové sloveso v základním tvaru. S použitím pomocného slovesa did v záporné formě mluvíme o minulosti, která se nestala, o něčem, co jsme my nebo někdo jiný neudělali.

Příklady
I didn’t see him. – Neviděl jsem ho.
I didn’t wash his car. – Neumyl jsem jeho auto.
Did you have breakfast? – Snídal jsi?

S pomocí past simple hovoříme také o sledu událostí, které začaly a skončily v minulosti. Nejdřív začala jedna událost, pak druhá, pak třetí atd.
Příklad: I finished my breakfast and went to school. – Nasnídal jsem se a šel do školy.
She came at 8 o’clock, opened the door and sat down. – Přišla v osm hodin, otevřela dveře a posadila se.

Pomocí past simple lze také vyjádřit určitou dobu trvání nějaké činnosti nebo aktivity v minulosti. Doba trvání v minulosti je většinou přesně specifikována. Jedná se o činnost, která v minulosti skončila.

Příklady:
I lived in Germany for five years. – Pět let jsem žil v Německu.
He waited for six hours. – Čekal osm hodin.

Past simple lze použít i v dalších situacích, budeme se jim věnovat v některém z dalších článků.

51 comments for “Anglický minulý čas prostý – Past Simple

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