Časové předložky v angličtině

Tento článek navazuje na dříve publikovaný text, ve kterém jsme se zabývali základními časovými předložkami. Časové předložky v angličtině bývají často poměrně matoucí a přesný český překlad občas nedává dost dobře smysl. Po základních časových předložkách in, on a at přinášíme přehled dalších předložek, které se vztahují k času, resp. čas blíže určují.

Předložka for

Překlad této předložky je docela oříšek, v češtině se sama o sobě dá vyjádřit jen těžko, pokud hovoříme o času. Předložka for se používá i v jiných souvislostech a budeme o ní mluvit (psát) v dalších příspěvcích. For používáme, pokud chceme vyjádřit, jak dlouho už určitá aktivita či něčí činnost trvá. Vyjadřujeme tedy blíže délku trvání.

Příklady: I’ve been waiting for an hour! (Už tady čekám hodinu!); He has been riding bicycle for three hours. (Jezdí na kole tři hodiny.); He waited for two hours. (Čekal dvě hodiny.); I’ve lived in this town for seven years. (Žiju tady v tom městě už sedm let.)

Předložka during

Do češtiny by se předložka during dala přeložit jako „během“ (během určité doby, během jiné činnosti atd.). Pomocí during vyjadřujeme také činnost, která se stane během jiné aktivity.

Příklady: The boy was sleeping during the movie. (Chlapec během filmu spal.); during the night (během noci); during our holiday (během naší dovolené); He came during the afternoon meeting. (Přišel během odpolední porady.); During my holiday I visited many interesting places. (Během dovolené jsem navštívil mnoho zajímavých míst.)

Předložka while

Předložka while je významově blízká předložce during, není ale stoprocentně shodná. Předložka while vyjadřuje dobu, po kterou určitá činnost trvá. Dále se používá, pokud mluvíme o dvou aktivitách, které probíhaly současně, ale samotná délka aktivity není přesně určena a ani není důležitá. Českým ekvivalentem je slovo když, případně zatímco. Mimochodem, pokud se chcete podívat na rozdíl while a during v realitě, koukněte se na tento spot z oblíbeného seriálu IT Crowd 🙂

Příklady: While I was playing the guitar, my friend was reading a book. (Když jsem hrál na kytaru, kamarád si četl knihu.); She came while I was having dinner. (Přišla, když jsem večeřel.)

Předložka until

Předložku until lze přeložit do češtiny jako do (do určité doby). Pomocí until vyjadřujeme do jaké doby určitá aktivita nebo činnost trvá, trvala nebo bude trvat.

Příklady: I stayed at home until nine o’clock. (Zůstal jsem doma do devíti hodin.); We’ll be here until November. (Zůstaneme tu do listopadu.)

Předložka since

Předložka since vyjadřuje, kdy nějaká aktivita nebo činnost začala, resp. od kdy trvá či trvala. Lze ji přeložit jako české „od“.

Příklady: since november (od listopadu); since ten o’clock (od deseti hodin); She is playing the piano since this morning. (Hraje na piáno od dnešního rána.); I haven’t seen my brother since 1992. (Neviděl jsem svého bratra od roku 1992.)

From – To

Dvojice předložek from  – to je snadná na zapamatování i reálné použití. Do češtiny je lze přeložit jako sousloví „od – do“. Vyjadřuje přesně trvání aktivity od určité doby do určité doby.

Příklady: We watched TV from 4 to 9 o ‘clock. (Koukali jsme na televizi od 4 do 9 hodin.)

Předložka after

Vyjadřuje stav po něčem. Nedefinuje přesně čas, ale stav, který nastane poté, co něco skončí.

Příklady: after school (po škole); after lunch (po obědě)

Předložka ago

Předložka ago vyjadřuje dobu před nějakou přesně či nepřesně definovanou dobou.

Příklady: long time ago (před dávnými časy); 6 years ago (před šesti lety); a minute ago (před minutou)

Předložka before

Before vyjadřuje rovněž stav před něčím, před nějakým časovým úsekem, před nějakým dnem či termínem.

Příklady: before Christmas (před vánočními svátky); before my birthday (před mými narozeninami)

Předložka between

Vyjadřuje časový úsek mezi dvěma časovými údaji.

Příklady: between Monday and Friday (mezi pondělím a pátkem); between 2 and 6 o’clock (mezi druhou a šestou hodinou)

Předložka within

Within lze podobně jako during nebo while přeložit jako během nějakého času, během určité doby.

Příklady: They got married within 2 months. (Vzali se během dvou měsíců); Can you finish it within a week? (Budeš schopen to dokončit do týdne?)

 

Pro dnešek to stačí ne? Se seriálem na téma předložky v angličtině budeme brzy pokračovat.

 

 

 

40 comments for “Časové předložky v angličtině

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