Anglické místní předložky I.

Místní předložky se používají, pokud hovoříme či chceme popsat pozici nebo umístění nějaké osoby nebo předmětu či směru. Často je používáme, pokud potřebujeme odpovědět na otázky typu Kde? Kudy? Odkud? Kam? apod. V praxi si vzpomeňte na školní angličtinu, kdy jste trénovali, jak se zeptat na cestu případně jak odpovědět, kde co turista najde nebo jak se má na určité místo dostat, nebo popisovali umístění nějaké věci v pokoji.

At

Předložku at používáme, pokud mluvíme o nějakém specifickém konkrétním místě.

Příklady: at the end of the street, at the door (u dveří), at the window (u okna), at school (ve škole), at work (v práci), at the cinema (v kině), at 986 Elm Street

On

Předložku on použijeme, pokud mluvíme o věci, která se nachází na nějakém povrchu, případně v nějakém dopravním prostředku, v médiích apod.

Příklady: on the floor (na podlaze), on the wall (na zdi), on the table (na stole), on the first floor (v prvním patře), on the bus (v autobusu), on TV (v televizi), on Elm Street (v Jilmové ulici – pokud bychom ale mluvili o konkrétní adrese, použijeme at)

In

Předložku in použijeme, pokud mluvíme o nějakém uzavřeném místě nebo prostoru nebo městě.

Příklady: in the garden (na zahradě), in the house (v domě), in Bristol (v Bristolu), in a village (ve vesnici), in the box (v krabici), in the room (v pokoji), in the car (v autě), in the book (v knize)

By, beside, next to

Všechny uvedené předložky mají obdobný význam a dají se většinou zaměnit. Jejich významem je vedle něčeho, v blízkosti něčeho, vedle sebe apod.

Příklady: Peter is standing by/mext to/beside the house. (Petr stojí vedle, u domu), Our house is next to/beside the bus station. (Náš dům stojí vedle autobusové zastávky), the house by the river (dům u řeky).

Under

Význam under je poměrně jednoznačný a znamená pod, pod nějakou plochou.

Příklady: Under the table (pod stolem), under the bed (pod postelí), under the water (pod vodou).

Underneath

Underneath je variantou předložky under, kterou mírně zpřesňuje. Znamená rovněž pod něčím, ovšem ve významu bezprostředně pod, na spodní straně apod.

Příklady: look underneath (podívej se zespodu), the underneath of the car (spodek auta), from underneath (zespod)

In front of

In front of znamená přímo před něčím případně před někým.

Příklady: in front of the house (před domem), in front of the students (před studenty), in front of the supermarket (před supermarketem).

Behind

Behind je opakem předložky in front of. Behind znamená za, v zadní části, za něčím.

Příklady: behind her (za ní), behind the house (za domem), behind the mask (za maskou).

Between

Between znamená mezi, mezi dvěma věcmi nebo dvěma a lidmi, objekty, mezi čísly apod.

Příklady: between 5 and 9 (mezi pětkou a devítkou), between USA a Mexico (mezi USA a Mexikem), between them (mezi nimi), between the house and the bus stop (mezi domem a zastávkou).

Above a Over

Předložky above a over mají obdobný význam. Above znamená nad něčím, nad nějakou plochou, předmětem. Over znamená rovněž nad nebo spíše přes něco (něco překoná nebo překrývá něco jiného).

Příklady: above the table (nad stolem), above the clouds (nad mraky), above you (nad tebou, above us (nad nmi), over the bridge (přes most), over the wall (přes zeď), over the top (přes vrchol).

Další anglické místní předložky si popíšeme v pokračování článku.

 

 

 

47 comments for “Anglické místní předložky I.

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