Anglické časy – past perfect I.

Tento článek je dalším pokračováním nepravidelného seriálu na téma anglických časů. Právě anglické časy jsou často tou oblastí gramatiky, ve které studenti, kteří se snaží si angličtinu osvojit, často chybují. Pokud také přemýšlíte o tom, jaký čas použít a kdy, není od věci si znalosti anglických časů trochu zopakovat. Dnešním tématem je past perfect tense neboli česky trochu krkolomně předminulý čas (to zní hrozně, že?).

Tvorba past perfect tense

Anglický čas past perfect se tvoří pomocí slovesa to have v minulém čase a příčestí minulého (past participle) příslušného slovesa (např. eat – eaten, take – taken, show – shown, beat – beaten, choose – chosen, forbid – forbidden atd.)

Anglický čas past perfect popisuje resp. se vztahuje k události, která se stala v minulosti před jinou událostí, která se rovněž stala v minulosti. V podstatě s pomocí past perfect říkáme, která událost se stala dříve bez ohledu na to, která událost je ve větě zmíněna dříve. Zkrátka je-li u nějakého děje použit past perfect, děj se stal dříve než děj jiný.

Použití past perfect tense

Jak je zmíněno výše, pomocí past perfect popisujeme událost, která se stala v minulosti před jinou událostí. Často se použití tohoto anglického času pojí se slovy when, after, already, just, as soon as apod. pomocí kterých se určuje resp. popisuje posloupnost dějů v minulosti. Vypadá to možná složitě, následující příklady určitě pomohou k lepšímu pochopení.

Příklady: He had already finished his work when she came home. – Když přišla domů, měl práci dokončenou. – Tj. práci dokončil dřív, než přišla domů.

When she had done his work, he went to the cinema. – Když dokončil svou práci, šel do kina. – tj. Nejdříve dokončil svou práci – jeden děj v minulosti předchází jiný děj – šel do kina.

After I have eaten the soup, I felt ill. – Poté, co jsem snědl polévku, mi bylo špatně. Tj. Špatně mi mohlo být a poté, co jsem snědl polévku.

I arrived to the heater after the performance had started. – Dorazil jsem do kina ve chvíli, kdy už představení začalo. Tj. představení začalo předtím, než jsem dorazil.

It had already stopped raining when I bought an umbrella. – Když jsem si koupil deštník, už přestalo pršet. Tj. pršet přestalo předtím, než jsem si ten deštník koupil.

I had left the cinema before the movie ended. – Odešel jsem z kina ještě dříve, než film skončil.

Jak je patrné z uvedených příkladů, jde vždy o dvě akce, které se uskutečnily v minulosti. Čas past perfect se v tomto případě pojí s minulým časem prostým – past simple tense. Děj, který je vyjádřen pomocí past perfect tense se stal před dějem, který je vyjádřen pomocí simple past. Oba děje lze rozdělit do dvou samostatných vět, tj. v jedné větě bude použit past simple a v druhé větě, u děje, který předcházel, past perfect.

Past perfect se samozřejmě nemusí pojit s jiným minulým časem. Sám o sobě pak vyjadřuje děj, který se stal před určitým časem v minulosti.

Příklad: He had finished his work by 2 o’clock. – Svou práci dokončil před druhou hodinou.

Past perfect dále vyjadřuje děj, který začal a skončil v minulosti, resp. následky toho dějem byly patrné v minulosti, nikoli v přítomnosti.

Příklad: He had an accident and he had to stay at home for four months. – Po úrazu, který utrpěl v práci, musel doma zůstat čtyři měsíce.

 

Pro dnešek vše, další použití past perfect tense si popíšeme v dalším pokračování seriálu.

 

 

 

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