Anglická gramatika – Přítomný čas „průběhový“

Dalším s přítomných anglických časů, jehož zvládnutí je naprostou nezbytností, je přítomný čas průběhový neboli present continuous či present progressive tense. Níže jsou uvedeny zejména rozdíly mezi anglickým přítomným časem průběhovým a přítomným časem prostým, jehož tvorbu a použití popisuje předešlý příspěvek. Článek by mě pomoci těm, kteří často hledají odpověď na otázku: Dá se říci: „I watch TV now,“ nebo je správně: „I’m watching TV now?“

Použití anglického přítomného času průběhového

V článku o simple present tense je uvedeno, že čas se používá v případě, že hovoříme o věcech, které jsou obecně známé, pravidelné, o věcech či záležitostech, které se pravidelně opakují. Oproti tomu present continuous se používá v případě, pokud mluvčí hovoří o záležitosti, které se děje právě teď, resp. kterou právě teď dělá. Anglický přítomný čas průběhový popisuje činnost aktuální v době promluvy. Činnost začala v nedávné době před tím, než o í mluvčí začal hovořit a patrně bude pokračovat i po určitou dobu v budoucnosti.

Např.:
I’m watching TV now. (Dívám se na televizi. – Tj. začal jsem se dívat před chvílí, dívám se teď a asi se budu ještě nějakou dobu dívat.
I’m taking a shower. (Dávám si sprchu. – Tj. začal jsem se sprchovat před chvílí a budu ještě chvilku pokračovat.
I’m eating. (Právě jím. Tj. začal jsem před chvilkou jíst a budu v tom ještě chvíli pokračovat.)
I’m writing an article. (Totéž – Pokud mluvím o psaní článku, je patrné, že jej ještě nemám hotový, ale právě jej píšu a budu v psaní ještě nějakou dobu pokračovat.)

Nemusí se jednat jen o činnost, která je aktuálně v běhu, která je zrovna teď aktuální, ale i o činnost, která je dočasná tedy o činnost, která někdy v nedávné minulosti začala, stále pokračuje a v blízké budoucnosti bude ještě pokračovat.
Např.:
I’m losing weight. (Hubnu. – Je to záležitost, která je dočasná, hubnu už po nějakou dobu, neboť jsem vyžraný a budu v tom pokračovat i do budoucna)
Many peple are losing jobs. (Mnoho lidí přichází v tuto dobu o práci. – Tj. je nějaká krize, mnoho lidí přišlo o práci a tento trend se zatím nedaří zvrátit. Ale je to dočasná záležitost, proto použijeme present continuous.)

Anglický přítomný čas průběhový se také používá pro popis budoucnosti.
Např.:
We are going to the cinema tonight. (Dnes půjdeme do kina. – I přesto, že je tam going, neznamená to, že tam jdeme právě teď, tonight značí, že se jedná o činnost, kterou máme v plánu na dnešní večer.)
I’m working in London next week. (Příští týden budu pracovat v Londýně. – Je to naplánovaná činnost, se kterou počítám.)

 

Tvorba present continuous

Tvorba tohoto anglického času je velmi jednoduchá. Použijeme v příslušném tvaru sloveso to be (I am, you are, he is, she is, it is, we are, you are, they are) a přidáme příslušné sloveso s koncovkou –ing. (I am listening. You are cooking. He is sleeping. She is waiting. We are driving. You are cleaning. They are learning.)

45 comments for “Anglická gramatika – Přítomný čas „průběhový“

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