Anglická gramatika – Přítomný čas prostý

Přítomný čas prostý patří k těm oblastem anglické gramatiky, se kterým se začínající studenti seznamují v počátcích studia. I přesto, že jeho použití a gramatická skladba je poměrně jednoduchá, přesné použití prostého přítomného času dělá často problémy mnoha studujícím, zejména poté, co se seznámí s dalšími časy a nastane problém tím, který čas použít, aby to bylo gramaticky správně.

 

Pravidla tvoření

Tvoření přítomného času prostého je jednoduché: Použijeme infinitiv bez slovíčka to, pouze u třetí osoby (he, she, it..) přidáme na konci písmeno –s nebo –es.

Příklady:
I work, you work, he works, we work, you work, they work
I play, you play, she plays, we play, you play, they play

U záporných vět je nutno přidat do not (don’t) nebo does not (doesn’t):
I don’t work, you don’t work, she doesn’t work, we don’t work, you don’t work, they don’t work
I do not play, you do not play, he/she does not play, we do not play, you do not play, they do not play

Otázky se tvoří pomocí do a does:
How often do you go to the cinema? – Jak často chodíš do kina?
Where do you come from? – Odkud jsi?
Where do you work? – Kde pracuješ?
What does this mean? – Co tohle znamená?
Do you drink tea? – Piješ čaj?
Does he drink beer? (Of course he does…) – Pije pivo?
Do you speak English? – Mluvíte anglicky?

 

Kdy použít simple present tense?

V případě, že mluvíme o činnostech nebo se ptáme na činnosti, které jsou pravidelné (dějí se opakovaně) nebo říkáme nějaké obecné pravdy či konstatování. Nejde o činnosti resp. nemusí jít o činnosti, které jsou v době promluvy aktuální – např. věta: „Jim plays football,“ nevyjadřuje aktuální děj (Jim nehraje fotbal právě teď, v době, kdy o něm mluvíme, jen říkáme, že Jim hraje fotbal a může to znamenat, že hraje každý den, že hraje pravidelně, ale ne teď v tuto chvíli). Druhý příklad je věta „He works hard.“ Znamená, že někdo (on) pracuje tvrdě či pilně. Neznamená to ale, že dotyčný dře v tuto chvíli, jde o obecné konstatování, že je to pilný, pracovitý člověk.

Příklady:
The earth goes aroung the sun. – Země se otáčí kolem Slunce.
Jim plays football every day. – Jim hraje denně fotbal.
I get up at six o’clock. – Vstávám v šest hodin. (Pravidelně, protože musím do práce.)
Nurses look after patients. – Sestry se starají o pacienty. (Obecná pravda, alespoŇ by to tak být mělo 🙂
Water boils at one hundred degrees. – Voda se vaří při 100 stupních. (Obecné pravidlo.)
He works hard.
We live in a house. – Žijeme v rodinném domku. (Žijeme tam už delší dobu, je to obecně konstatování)

 

Vyjádření budoucího děje

Přítomný čas prostý v některých případech může vyjadřovat i budoucnost. Jde zejména o případy, kdy se ptáme nebo zjišťujeme nějaké termíny nebo časy událostí. Často se jedná o otázky na čas zahájení nějaké události, čas odjezdu vlaku nebo autobusu apod.

Příklad:
What time does the train leave? – Kdy odjíždí vlak? (Kdy bude odjíždět?)
The film lasts about 90 minutes. – Film potrvá devadesát minut. (Bude trvat 90 minut.)

Pokračování v článku o přítomném času průběhovém.

43 comments for “Anglická gramatika – Přítomný čas prostý

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